The Motor vehicle Rental Market

Current market Overview

The motor vehicle rental marketplace is a multi-billion greenback sector of the US economy. The US phase of the marketplace averages about $eighteen.5 billion in profits a calendar year. Currently, there are roughly 1.9 million rental motor vehicles that company the US phase of the current market. In addition, there are many rental businesses apart from the marketplace leaders that subdivide the overall profits, specifically Dollar Thrifty, Budget and Vanguard. In contrast to other experienced company industries, the rental car industry is really consolidated which in a natural way places probable new comers at a expense-downside considering that they confront large enter costs with diminished risk of economies of scale. In addition, most of the income is produced by a number of companies such as Company, Hertz and Avis. For the fiscal calendar year of 2004, Company produced $7.four billion in overall profits. Hertz came in next situation with about $5.two billion and Avis with $two.ninety seven in profits.

Degree of Integration

The rental car industry faces a absolutely unique surroundings than it did 5 decades back. In accordance to Company Travel Information, motor vehicles are staying rented until finally they have accrued 20,000 to thirty,000 miles until finally they are relegated to the employed car industry whereas the convert-around mileage was twelve,000 to fifteen,000 miles 5 decades back. Since of gradual marketplace advancement and narrow income margin, there is no imminent threat to backward integration inside the marketplace. In simple fact, amongst the marketplace players only Hertz is vertically built-in by way of Ford.

Scope of Opposition

There are many elements that form the competitive landscape of the motor vehicle rental marketplace. Opposition comes from two key resources all over the chain. On the holiday shopper&#146s conclude of the spectrum, competition is fierce not only simply because the current market is saturated and nicely guarded by marketplace chief Company, but competition run at a expense downside along with lesser current market shares considering that Company has established a network of dealers in excess of ninety p.c the leisure phase. On the corporate phase, on the other hand, competition is really sturdy at the airports considering that that phase is under restricted supervision by Hertz. Since the marketplace underwent a huge financial downfall in the latest decades, it has upgraded the scale of competition inside most of the firms that survived. Competitively talking, the rental car industry is a war-zone as most rental businesses such as Company, Hertz and Avis amongst the big players have interaction in a struggle of the fittest.


Around the past 5 decades, most companies have been operating to enhancing their fleet sizes and raising the stage of profitability. Company at the moment the enterprise with the most significant fleet in the US has extra seventy five,000 motor vehicles to its fleet considering that 2002 which enable raise its selection of services to one hundred seventy at the airports. Hertz, on the other hand, has extra twenty five,000 motor vehicles and broadened its global existence in a hundred and fifty counties as opposed to one hundred forty in 2002. In addition, Avis has elevated its fleet from 210,000 in 2002 to 220,000 regardless of the latest financial adversities. Around the decades next the financial downturn, while most firms all over the marketplace ended up struggling, Company amongst the marketplace leaders had been developing steadily. For instance, once-a-year income reached $6.three in 2001, $6.5 in 2002, $6.9 in 2003 and $7.four billion in 2004 which translated into a advancement rate of 7.two p.c a calendar year for the past four decades. Because 2002, the marketplace has begun to regain its footing in the sector as over-all income grew from $17.9 billion to $eighteen.two billion in 2003. In accordance to marketplace analysts, the greater times of the rental car industry have yet to arrive. Around the study course of the following a number of decades, the marketplace is predicted to working experience accelerated advancement valued at $20.89 billion each calendar year next 2008 “which equates to a CAGR of two.7 % [raise] in the 2003-2008 period.&#148


Around the past number of decades the rental car industry has built a excellent deal of progress to facilitate it distribution processes. Currently, there are roughly 19,000 rental spots yielding about 1.9 million rental cars in the US. Since of the more and more ample selection of motor vehicle rental spots in the US, strategic and tactical strategies are taken into account in buy to insure suitable distribution all over the marketplace. Distribution can take area inside two interrelated segments. On the corporate current market, the cars are distributed to airports and hotel surroundings. On the leisure phase, on the other hand, cars are distributed to company owned services that are conveniently situated inside most big streets and metropolitan regions.

In the past, managers of rental motor vehicle firms employed to depend on intestine-thoughts or intuitive guesses to make selections about how many cars to have in a unique fleet or the utilization stage and performance requirements of preserving specific cars in a person fleet. With that methodology, it was really tough to sustain a stage of stability that would fulfill shopper demand from customers and the wished-for stage of profitability. The distribution approach is quite uncomplicated all over the marketplace. To start with, managers need to decide the selection of cars that need to be on stock on a daily foundation. Since a really visible problem arises when as well many or not enough cars are available, most motor vehicle rental firms such as Hertz, Company and Avis, use a “pool&#148 which is a group of unbiased rental services that share a fleet of motor vehicles. Mainly, with the swimming pools in area, rental spots run much more successfully considering that they lower the risk of low stock if not eradicate rental motor vehicle shortages.

Current market Segmentation

Most firms all over the chain make a income based of the sort of cars that are rented. The rental cars are classified into economy, compact, intermediate, quality and luxurious. Among the 5 classes, the economy sector yields the most income. For instance, the economy phase by by itself is responsible for 37.7 p.c of the overall current market profits in 2004. In addition, the compact phase accounted for 32.three p.c of over-all profits. The relaxation of the other classes handles the remaining thirty p.c for the US phase.

Historic Amounts of Profitability

The over-all profitability of the motor vehicle rental marketplace has been shrinking in the latest decades. Around the past 5 decades, the marketplace has been struggling just like the relaxation of the travel marketplace. In simple fact, involving the decades 2001 and 2003 the US current market has professional a reasonable reduction in the stage of profitability. Specifically, profits fell from $19.four billion in 2000 to $eighteen.two billion in 2001. Subsequently, the over-all marketplace profits eroded more to $17.9 billion in 2002 an total that is minimally larger than $17.7 billion which is the over-all profits for the calendar year 1999. In 2003, the marketplace professional a barely visible raise which introduced income to $eighteen.two billion. As a end result of the financial downturn in the latest decades, some of the lesser players that ended up really dependent on the airline marketplace have completed a excellent deal of strategy realignments as a way of getting ready their firms to cope with eventual financial adversities that could encompass the marketplace. For the calendar year 2004, on the other hand, the financial situation of most companies have gradually improved all over the marketplace considering that most rental businesses have returned significantly larger profits relative to the anterior decades. For instance, Company understood revenues of $7.four billion Hertz returned revenues of $5.two billion and Avis with $two.9 billion in profits for the fiscal calendar year of 2004. In accordance to marketplace analysts, the rental car industry is predicted to working experience continual advancement of two.6 p.c in profits in excess of the following a number of decades which translates into an raise in income.

Aggressive Rivalry Among Sellers

There are many elements that push competition inside the motor vehicle rental marketplace. Around the past number of decades, broadening fleet sizes and raising profitability has been the focus of most firms inside the motor vehicle rental marketplace. Company, Hertz and Avis amongst the leaders have been developing both of those in income and fleet sizes. In addition, competition intensifies as companies are constantly striving to enhance their current disorders and provide much more to consumers. Company has virtually doubled its fleet measurement considering that 1993 to roughly 600,000 cars today. Since the marketplace operates on these kinds of narrow income margins, price tag competition is not a variable however, most firms are actively concerned in developing values and offering a selection of facilities from technological gizmos to even totally free rental to fulfill customers. Hertz, for instance, integrates its Never-Misplaced GPS system inside its cars. Company, on the other hand, takes advantage of advanced generate management program to control its fleets.

Lastly, Avis takes advantage of its OnStar and Skynet system to greater serve the shopper base and features totally free weekend rental if a buyer rents a motor vehicle for 5 consecutive times In addition, the shopper base of the rental car industry has rather low to no switching expense. Conversely, rental businesses confront large mounted running costs such as home rental, insurance plan and servicing. For that reason, rental businesses are sensitively pricing there rental cars just to recover running costs and sufficiently meet their customers needs. Furthermore, simply because the marketplace professional gradual advancement in the latest decades thanks to financial stagnation that resulted in a huge decrease in both of those corporate travel and the leisure sector, most firms such as the marketplace leaders are aggressively striving to reposition their companies by gradually lessening the dependency stage on the airline marketplace and regaining their footing in the leisure competitive arena.

The Possible Entry of new Opponents

Entering the motor vehicle rental marketplace places new comers at a critical downside. Around the past number of decades next the financial downturn of 2001, most big rental firms have begun raising their current market shares in the holiday sector of the marketplace as a way of insuring security and lowering the stage of dependency involving the airline and the motor vehicle rental marketplace. While this trend has engendered extensive expression achievements for the current companies, it has heightened the competitive landscape for new comers. Since of the severity of competition, current companies these kinds of as Company, Hertz and Avis thoroughly keep an eye on their competitive radars to foresee Sharpe retaliatory strikes against new entrants. Yet another barrier to entry is produced simply because of the saturation stage of the marketplace.

For instance, Company has taken the to start with mover advantage with its 6000 services by saturating the leisure phase therefore inserting not only large constraints on the most frequent distribution channels, but also large useful resource needs for new companies. Currently, Company has a rental site inside fifteen miles of ninety p.c of the US populace. Since of the network of dealers Company has established around the nation, it has become rather steady, much more recession proof and most importantly, much less reliant on the airline marketplace as opposed to its competition. Hertz, on the other hand, is using the complete spectrum of its 7200 retailers to safe its situation in the marketplace. Mainly, the emergence of most of the marketplace leaders into the leisure current market not only drives rivalry, but also it differs immediately with the stage of complexity of moving into the motor vehicle rental marketplace.

The Risk of Substitute

There are many substitutes available for the motor vehicle rental marketplace. From a technological standpoint, leasing a motor vehicle to go the distance for a assembly is a much less appealing option as opposed to video clip conferencing, digital groups and collaboration program with which a enterprise can right away setup a assembly with its staff members from anywhere around the globe at a less costly expense. In addition, there are other solutions such as taking a cab which is a satisfactory substitute relative to top quality and switching expense, but it could not be as attractively priced as a rental motor vehicle for the study course of a working day or much more. While community transportation is the most expense efficient of the solutions, it is much more pricey in conditions of the approach and time it can take to attain a person&#146s vacation spot. Lastly, simply because traveling features convenience, speed and performance, it is a really enticing substitute however, it is an unattractive option in conditions of price tag relative to leasing a motor vehicle. On the company phase, motor vehicle rental businesses have much more safety against substitutes considering that many firms have applied travel insurance policies that establish the parameters of when leasing a motor vehicle or utilizing a substitute is the most effective study course of action.

In accordance to Tracy Esch, an Edge director of promoting functions, her enterprise rents cars up to a two hundred-mile trip ahead of considering an option. Mainly, the threat of substitute is reasonably low in the motor vehicle rental marketplace considering that the outcomes the substitute solutions have do not pose a important threat of income erosion all over the marketplace.

The Bargaining Ability of Suppliers

Provider electric power is low in the motor vehicle rental marketplace. Since of the availability of substitutes and the stage of competition, suppliers do not have a excellent deal of affect in the conditions and disorders of giving the rental cars. Since the rental cars are usually purchased in bulk, rental motor vehicle brokers have important affect in excess of the conditions of the sale considering that they possess the skill to enjoy a person provider against a further to lower the income price tag. Yet another variable that lowers provider electric power is the absence of switching expense. That is, potential buyers are not influenced from paying for from a person provider in excess of a further and most importantly, shifting to unique provider&#146s solutions is barely visible and does not have an impact on shopper&#146s rental choices.

The Bargaining Ability of Prospective buyers

While the leisure sector has small or no electric power, the company phase possesses a important total of affect in the motor vehicle rental marketplace. An intriguing trend that is at the moment underway all over the marketplace is forcing motor vehicle rental firms to adapt to the wants of corporate travelers. This trend appreciably lowers provider electric power or the rental companies&#146 electric power and raises corporate buyer electric power considering that the company phase is excruciatingly price tag delicate, nicely educated about the marketplace&#146s price tag construction, purchase in larger portions and they use the world wide web to pressure lower selling prices. Getaway potential buyers, on the other hand, have much less affect in excess of the rental conditions. Since vacationers are usually much less price tag delicate, purchase in lesser amounts or purchase much more sometimes, they have weak bargaining electric power.

5 Forces

Currently the motor vehicle rental marketplace is struggling with a absolutely unique surroundings than it did 5 decades back. Competitively talking, the revolution of the 5 forces around the motor vehicle rental marketplace exerts some sturdy financial tension that has appreciably tarnished the competitive attractiveness of the marketplace. As a end result of the financial downturn in the latest decades, many firms went under specifically Budget and the Vanguard Group simply because their company infrastructure succumbed to the untenability of the competitive surroundings. Currently, really number of companies such as Company, Hertz and Avis return a slightly higher than-typical profits as opposed to the relaxation of the marketplace. Realistically talking, the motor vehicle rental sector is not a really appealing marketplace simply because of the stage of competition, the barriers to entry and the competitive tension from the substitute companies.

Strategic Group Mapping

As a reasonably concentrated sector, there is a obvious hierarchy in the motor vehicle rental marketplace. From an financial standpoint, disparities exist from a selection of proportions such as profits, fleet measurement and the current market measurement each business retains in the current market area. For instance, Company dominates the marketplace with a fleet measurement of roughly 600,000 motor vehicles along with its current market measurement and its stage of profitability. Hertz comes in next situation with its selection of current market shares and fleet quantity. In addition, Avis ranks 3rd on the map. Avis is amongst a person of the firms that is possessing difficulties recovering its profits margins from prior to the financial downturn. For instance, in 2000 Avis returned revenues of roughly $four.23 billion. Around the study course of the following a number of decades next 2000, the profits of Avis has been appreciably lower than that of 2000. As a way of cutting down uncertainty most firms are gradually lessening the stage of dependency on the airline marketplace and emerging the leisure current market. This trend could not be in the most effective interest of Hertz considering that its company strategy is intricately connected to the airports.

Key Results Elements

There are many critical achievements elements that push profitability all over the motor vehicle rental marketplace. Ability utilization is a person of the elements that determines achievements in the marketplace. Since rental companies working experience reduction of profits when there are both as well number of or as well many cars sitting in their heaps, it is of paramount worth to successfully control the fleets. This achievements variable signifies a large strength for the marketplace considering that it lowers if not absolutely eliminates the quite possibly of functioning quick on rental cars. Successful distribution is a further variable that keeps the marketplace profitable. Even with the positive relationship involving fleet sizes and the stage of profitability, companies are constantly developing their fleet sizes simply because of the competitive forces that encompass the marketplace. In addition, convenience is a person of the essential attributes by which consumers pick out rental companies. That is, motor vehicle rental consumers are much more susceptible to leasing cars from companies that have hassle-free rental and fall off spots. Yet another critical achievements variable that is frequent amongst competing companies is the integration of technological innovation in their company processes. As a result of technological innovation, for instance, the motor vehicle rental firms produce approaches to meet shopper demand from customers by building leasing a motor vehicle a really agreeable ordeal by including the convenience of online rental amongst other solutions. Furthermore, companies have built-in navigation devices along with roadside help to provide customers the piece of intellect when leasing cars.

Market Attractiveness

There are many elements that effect the attractiveness of the motor vehicle rental marketplace. Since the marketplace is reasonably concentrated, it places new current market entrants at a downside. That is, its low focus signifies a normal barrier to moving into the marketplace as it enables current business to foresee sharp retaliations against new entrants. Since of the hazards connected with moving into the marketplace amongst other elements, it is not a really appealing sector of the marketplace. From a competitive standpoint, the leisure current market is ninety p.c saturated simply because of the energetic attempts of Company to dominate this sector of the current market. On the other hand, the airport terminals are closely guarded by Hertz. Realistically talking, entry in the marketplace features low profitability relative to the costs and hazards connected. For most consumers, the key analyzing elements of selecting a person enterprise in excess of a further are price tag and convenience. Since of this rationale, rental companies are really circumspect about setting their prices and that frequently pressure even the marketplace big players in the situation of providing much more to the consumers for much less just to keep on being competitive. Hertz, for instance, features wireless world wide web to its customers just to increase much more convenience to their travel designs. Avis on the other hand, features totally free weekend specials if a buyer rents a motor vehicle for 5 consecutive weekdays. Centered on the effect of the 5 forces, the motor vehicle rental sector is not a really appealing marketplace to probable new current market entrants.


The rental car industry is in a condition of restoration. Although it could look like the marketplace is performing nicely economically, it is nevertheless gradually regaining its footing relative to its real financial situation inside the past 5 decades. As a way of insuring profitability, apart from seeking current market shares and security, most firms all over the chain have a frequent goal that deals with lowering the stage of dependency on the airline marketplace and transferring toward the leisure phase. This condition of movement has engendered some fierce competition amongst marketplace competition as they attempt to protect their current market shares. From a futuristic point of view, the greater times of the motor vehicle rental marketplace have yet to arrive. As the stage of profitability raises, I imagine that most of the marketplace leaders such as Company, Hertz and Avis will be bounded by the financial and competitive barriers of mobility of their strategic teams and new comers will have a greater likelihood of infiltrating and recognizing achievements in the motor vehicle rental marketplace.


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