Belem, Lisbon, Portugal
The Willys MB U.S. Army Jeep (formally the Truck, 1/4 ton, 4×4) and the Ford GPW were being manufactured from 1941 to 1945. These tiny four-wheel generate utility automobiles are regarded the iconic Earth War II Jeep, and encouraged a lot of identical light-weight utility automobiles. Above the decades, the Earth War II Jeep later progressed into the “CJ” civilian Jeep. Its counterpart in the German army was the Volkswagen Kübelwagen, initially prototyped in 1938, also centered on a tiny automobile, but which applied an air-cooled engine and was not four-wheel generate.
Even however the globe had found common mechanisation of the military during Earth War I, and the United States Army had previously applied four-wheel generate trucks in it, equipped by the 4 Wheel Push Car Co. (FWD), by the time Earth War II was dawning, the United States Department of War were being continue to searching for a light-weight, cross-nation reconnaissance automobile.
As tensions were being heightening all around the globe in the late thirties, the U.S. Army requested American automobile producers to tender tips to replace its present, ageing light-weight motor automobiles, typically bikes and sidecars but also some Ford Design Ts.[two] This resulted in a number of prototypes staying presented to army officers, these types of as 5 Marmon-Herrington 4×4 Fords in 1937, and three Austin roadsters by American Bantam in 1938 (Fowler, 1993). Even so, the U.S. Army’s prerequisites were being not formalized until finally July 11, 1940, when one hundred thirty five U.S. automotive producers were being approached to submit a design conforming to the army’s specifications for a automobile the Earth War II complex guide TM nine-803 explained as “… a standard function, staff, or cargo provider specially adaptable for reconnaissance or command, and designated as 1/4-ton 4×4 Truck.”
Marmon-Herrington transformed Ford 1/two ton truck, at times called the “Grandfather of the Jeep”
By now the war was underneath way in Europe, so the Army’s have to have was urgent and demanding[citation essential]. Bids were being to be gained by July 22, a span of just eleven days. Suppliers were being supplied 49 days to submit their initially prototype and seventy five days for completion of 70 examination automobiles. The Army’s Ordnance Technological Committee specifications were being similarly demanding: the automobile would be four-wheel generate, have a crew of three on a wheelbase of no much more than seventy five (later 80) inches and tracks no much more than 47 inches, element a fold-down windshield, 660 lb payload and be run by an engine capable of eighty five ft·lb (one hundred fifteen N·m) of torque. The most daunting demand, nevertheless, was an vacant pounds of no much more than 1,300 lb (590 kg).
Only two providers entered: American Bantam Motor vehicle Enterprise and Willys-Overland Motors. Nevertheless Willys-Overland was the very low bidder, Bantam gained the bid, staying the only enterprise committing to deliver a pilot product in 49 days and manufacturing illustrations in seventy five. Under the leadership of designer Karl Probst, Bantam crafted their initially prototype, dubbed the “Blitz Buggy” (and in retrospect “Previous Number Just one”), and shipped it to the Army automobile examination middle at Camp Holabird, Maryland on September 23, 1940. This presented Army officers with the initially of what inevitably progressed into the Earth War II U.S. Army Jeeps: the Willys MB and Ford GPW.
The Bantam no.1 ‘Blitz Buggy’
Because Bantam did not have the manufacturing capacity or fiscal steadiness to deliver on the scale essential by the War Department, the other two bidders, Ford and Willys, were being encouraged to comprehensive their own pilot products for screening. The contract for the new reconnaissance motor vehicle was to be determined by trials. As screening of the Bantam prototype took area from September 27 to October 16, Ford and Willys complex reps existing at Holabird were being supplied enough possibility to review the vehicle’s functionality. Also, in purchase to expedite manufacturing, the War Department forwarded the Bantam blueprints to Ford and Willys, professing the governing administration owned the design. Bantam did not dispute this shift owing to its precarious fiscal problem. By November 1940, Ford and Willys each submitted prototypes to compete with the Bantam in the Army’s trials. The pilot products, the Willys Quad and the Ford Pygmy, turned out incredibly identical to each other and were being joined in screening by Bantam’s entry, now progressed into a Mark II called the BRC sixty. By then the U.S. and its armed forces were being previously underneath these types of pressure that all three cars were being declared acceptable and orders for 1,500 models for every enterprise were being supplied for field screening. At this time it was acknowledged the first pounds restrict (which Bantam had ignored) was unrealistic, and it was raised to two,one hundred sixty kilos (980 kg).
For these respective pre-manufacturing runs, each automobile gained revisions and a new title. Bantam’s became the BRC forty, and the enterprise ceased motor automobile manufacturing following the last 1 was crafted in December 1941. Immediately after reducing the vehicle’s pounds by 240 kilos, Willys’ modified the designation to “MA” for “Armed forces” product “A”. The Fords went into manufacturing as “GP”, with “G” for a “Federal government” form contract and “P” usually applied by Ford to designate any passenger motor vehicle with a wheelbase of 80 inches.
Willys MA jeep at the Desert Training Center, Indio, California, June 1942
Willys MB applied by former Philippine President Ramon Magsaysay
By July 1941, the War Department sought after to standardize and made the decision to pick a single maker to offer them with the upcoming purchase for an additional 16,000 automobiles. Willys gained the contract typically owing to its much more powerful engine (the “Go Satan”) which troopers raved about, and its decreased price and silhouette. The design attributes the Bantam and Ford entries had which were being an advancement around Willys’ were being then integrated into the Willys motor vehicle, going it from an “A” designation to “B”, so the “MB” nomenclature. Most noteworthy was a flat huge hood, tailored from Ford GP.
By October 1941, it became apparent Willys-Overland could not continue to keep up with manufacturing demand and Ford was contracted to deliver them as properly. The Ford motor vehicle was then designated GPW, with the “W” referring to the “Willys” licensed design. For the duration of Earth War II, Willys produced 363,000 Jeeps and Ford some 280,000. Somewhere around 51,000 were being exported to the U.S.S.R. underneath the Lend-Lease plan.
A additional 13,000 (roughly) amphibian jeeps were being crafted by Ford underneath the title GPA (nicknamed ‘Seep’ for Sea Jeep). Encouraged by the greater DUKW, the automobile was produced much too immediately and proved to be much too hefty, much too unwieldy, and of insufficient freeboard. In spite of participating successfully in the Sicily landings (July 1943) most GPAs were being routed to the U.S.S.R. underneath the Lend-Lease plan. The Soviets were being sufficiently delighted with its means to cross rivers to build their own edition of it following the war, the GAZ-46.
Origin of the phrase “jeep”
Main write-up: The origin of the phrase “jeep”
Just one account of the origin of the phrase “jeep” starts when the prototypes were being staying confirmed at military bases. The phrase “jeep” was applied by Army mechanics for any untried or untested automobiles.[five]
Although most probably owing to a bastardization of the acronym “GP”, applied to designate the automobile, an additional probably variable in the popularization of the jeep title arrived from the truth that the automobile manufactured rather an effect on troopers at the time, so considerably so that they informally named it following Eugene the Jeep, a character in the Popeye comic strip and cartoons developed by E. C. Segar as early as mid-March of 1936. Eugene the Jeep was Popeye’s “jungle pet” and was “tiny, equipped to shift among proportions and could address seemingly not possible challenges.”
In early 1941, Willys-Overland staged a push celebration in Washington, D.C., getting the motor vehicle show its prowess by driving up the Capitol methods. Irving “Red” Hausmann, a examination driver on the Willys improvement crew who had accompanied the motor vehicle for its screening at Camp Holabird, had listened to troopers there referring to it as a jeep. He was enlisted to go to the celebration and give a demonstration ride to a team of dignitaries, together with Katherine Hillyer, a reporter for the Washington Day by day Information. When requested by the reporter, Hausmann much too called it a Jeep. Hillyer’s write-up appeared in the newspaper on February 20, 1941, with a image exhibiting a jeep going up the Capitol methods and a caption together with the phrase ‘jeep’. This is believed to be the most probably bring about of the phrase staying mounted in community consciousness. Even however Hausmann did not make or invent the phrase Jeep, he incredibly properly could be the 1 most accountable for its initially information media usage.
Photostat facsimile of the 1941 write-up
Photostat facsimile of Red Hausmann’s jeep staying demonstrated for the reporter
Willys MB (US Army)
Willys in a museum
Willys manufactured its initially twenty five,000 MB Jeeps with a welded flat iron “slat” radiator grille. It was Ford who initially designed and applied the now common and exclusive stamped, slotted steel grille into its cars, which was lighter, applied much less means, and was considerably less expensive to deliver. Alongside with a lot of other design attributes innovated by Ford, this was adopted by Willys and applied into the normal Earth War II Jeep by April 1942.
Nowadays, Jeep makers proudly retain the automobile’s historic connection to the visage of its predecessors by applying a trademarked grille showcasing a normal number of vertical openings or ‘slots’. Even so, in purchase to be equipped to get theirs trademarked, Willys gave their put up-war jeeps seven slots in its place of Ford’s nine-slot design. Through a sequence of company get-overs and mergers, AM General Company ended up with the rights to use the seven-slot grille as properly, which they in switch prolonged to Chrysler when it obtained American Motors Company, then maker of Jeep, in 1987.
Immediately after the war Ford unsuccessfully sued Willys for the rights to the phrase “Jeep”, leaving Willys with complete rights to the title. From 1945 onwards, Willys took its four-wheel generate automobile to the community with its CJ (Civilian Jeep) variations, producing these the initially mass-produced 4×4 civilian automobiles. In 1948, US Federal Trade Fee agreed with American Bantam, that the idea of generating the Jeep was originated and made by the American Bantam in collaboration with some US Army officers. The fee forbade Willys from professing immediately or by implication, that it developed or designed the Jeep, and permitted it only to claim, that it contributed to the improvement of the automobile.[five] Even so, American Bantam went bankrupt by 1950, and Willys was granted the “Jeep” trademark in 1950.
The initially CJs were being essentially the exact same as the MB, besides for these types of alterations as vacuum-run windshield wipers, a tailgate (and for that reason a aspect-mounted spare tire), and civilian lights. Also, the civilian jeeps had features like naugahyde seats, chrome trim, and were being obtainable in a variety of shades. Mechanically, a heftier T-ninety transmission replaced the Willys MB’s T84 in purchase to attraction to the initially regarded rural consumers demographic.
Willys-Overland and its successors, Willys Motors and Kaiser Jeep equipped the U.S. military as properly as a lot of allied nations with military jeeps by way of the late 1960s.
Dutch Army M38A1
M606 in Colombia
In 1950, the initially postwar military jeep, the M38 (or MC), was launched, centered on the 1949 CJ-3A. In 1953, it was immediately followed by the M38A1 (or MD), showcasing an all-new “spherical-fendered” body in purchase to apparent the also new, taller, Willys Hurricane engine. This jeep was later made into the CJ-five launched in 1955. Equally, its ambulance edition, the M170 (or MDA), showcasing a 20-inch wheelbase stretch, was later turned into the civilian CJ-6.
Prior to the CJ-five, Willys supplied the community a less expensive substitute with the taller F-head engine in the variety of the CJ-3B, a CJ-3A body with a taller hood. This was immediately turned into the M606 jeep (typically applied for export, by way of 1968) by equipping it with the obtainable hefty-responsibility alternatives these types of as greater tires and springs, and by including black-out lights, olive drab paint, and a trailer hitch. Immediately after 1968, M606A2 and -A3 variations of the CJ-five were being developed in a identical way for welcoming overseas governments.
Licenses to deliver CJ-3Bs were being issued to producers in a lot of distinctive international locations, and some, these types of as the Mahindra corporation in India, keep on to deliver them in some variety or an additional to this day. The French army, for instance, produced its Willys MB by shopping for the Willys license to enable the manufacture of their Hotchkiss M201.
The Earth War II Jeep encouraged a lot of imitations. Creations from competing producers these types of as Land Rover, Toyota, Nissan, Mitsubishi, Suzuki, and a couple of many others all owe their beginnings in the 4×4 globe to the inspiration of the Willys Jeep.
The compact military jeep ongoing to be applied in the Korean and Vietnam Wars. In Korea, it was typically deployed in the variety of the MB, as properly as the M38 and M38A1 (released in 1952 and 1953), its immediate descendants. In Vietnam, the most applied jeep was the then freshly designed Ford M151 MUTT, which showcased these types of state-of-the-art technologies as a unibody construction and all all around impartial suspension with coil-springs. Apart from the mainstream of—by present-day standards—relatively tiny jeeps, an even smaller automobile was made for the US Marines, acceptable for airlifting and manhandling, the M422 ‘Mighty Mite’.
Sooner or later, the U.S. military made the decision on a fundamentally distinctive concept, choosing a considerably greater automobile that not only took around the purpose of the jeep, but also replaced all other light-weight military wheeled automobiles: the HMMWV (“Humvee”).
In 1991, the Willys-Overland Jeep MB was designated an Intercontinental Historic Mechanical Engineering Landmark by the American Modern society of Mechanical Engineers.
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